Is your Health being negatively affected by AGES (Advanced Glycation End Products)?
Advanced glycation end products (AGES) are a type of molecule that are formed when sugars
and proteins react in the body. AGES can be produced through normal metabolic processes, but
they are also formed in response to high blood sugar levels and oxidative stress. AGEs have
been linked to a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease,
Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease.
Formation of AGES
AGES are formed through a process called glycation, which occurs when a sugar molecule
reacts with a protein or lipid molecule in the body. This reaction can occur spontaneously, but it
is accelerated by high blood sugar levels and oxidative stress. The process of glycation
produces a variety of molecules, including Schiff bases, Amadori products, and eventually,
The formation of AGEs is a complex process that involves several steps. Initially, a sugar
molecule reacts with a protein or lipid molecule to form a Schiff base. This reaction is reversible
and can be broken down by enzymes called glyoxalases. However, if the Schiff base is not
broken down, it can undergo further reactions to form Amadori products.
Amadori products are stable compounds that can persist in the body for weeks or months. They
can react with other proteins or lipids to form cross linked structures that are characteristic of
AGES. Once formed, AGES are very stable and can persist in the body for years.
Sources of AGES
AGES can be formed endogenously (inside the body) or exogenously (outside the body).
Endogenous AGES are produced through normal metabolic processes and can be found in
small amounts in healthy individuals. However, the formation of endogenous AGEs is
accelerated by factors such as high blood sugar levels, oxidative stress, and inflammation.
Exogenous AGES are formed through the consumption of foods that are high in AGES, such as
fried and grilled meats, processed foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Exogenous AGES
can also be formed through the use of certain cooking methods, such as grilling, broiling, and
frying. When foods are cooked at high temperatures, they can form AGEs through a process
called the Maillard reaction.
Effects of AGES on the body
AGES can have a number of harmful effects on the body. They can accumulate in tissues over
time and contribute to the development of chronic diseases. Here are some of the ways that
AGES can affect the body:
1. Inflammation: AGES can activate the immune system and promote inflammation, which can
contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease,
and Alzheimer’s disease.
2. Oxidative stress: AGES can increase oxidative stress, which is a process that can damage
cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases.
3. Tissue damage: AGES can accumulate in tissues such as the kidneys, eyes, and blood
vessels, where they can contribute to tissue damage and dysfunction.
4. Insulin resistance: AGEs can interfere with the action of insulin, which can contribute to the
development of diabetes.
5. Cognitive decline: AGEs have been linked to cognitive decline and the development of
Reducing AGEs in the diet
1. Reducing the consumption of foods that are high in AGEs can help to reduce the levels of
AGEs in the body. Here are some tips for reducing AGEs in the diet:
2. Choose healthier cooking methods: Boiling, poaching, and steaming are cooking methods
that produce fewer AGES than grilling, frying, and broiling.
3. Eat more fruits and vegetables: Fruits and vegetables are low in AGES and are rich in
antioxidants, which can help to reduce oxidative stress in the body.
3. Choose lean proteins: Choose lean proteins such as chicken, fish, and legumes, and limit the
consumption of red meat and processed meats, which are high in AGES.
4. Use herbs and spices: Herbs and spices such as turmeric, ginger, and cinnamon have
antioxidant properties and can help to reduce the formation of AGEs during cooking.
5. Avoid processed and packaged foods: Processed and packaged foods are often high in
added sugars and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to the formation of AGEs in the body.
6. Limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: Sugar-sweetened beverages such as
soda and sports drinks are high in sugar and can contribute to the formation of AGEs in the
7. Choose healthier cooking oils: Choose oils that are high in monounsaturated or
polyunsaturated fats, such as olive oil or avocado oil, and avoid oils that are high in saturated
fats, such as coconut oil and palm oil.
In addition to making dietary changes, it is also important to manage blood sugar levels and
reduce oxidative stress in the body. Regular exercise, stress management techniques such as
meditation and yoga, and adequate sleep can all help to reduce oxidative stress and lower the
formation of AGES in the body.
Here is a list of the top 30 foods with the highest amount of AGES, based on data from
the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Journal of the American
1. Fried bacon (9,130 kU/100g)
2. Fried sausage (8,900 KU/100g)
3. Fried chicken (8,260 kU/100g)
4. Roasted turkey (7,710 kU/100g)
5. Grilled steak (7,570 kU/100g)
6. Roasted pork (7,460 kU/100g)
7. Grilled salmon (7,420 kU/100g)
8. Grilled chicken (6,990 kU/100g)
9. Fried eggs (6,810 KU/100g)
10. Grilled lamb (6,760 kU/100g)
11. Roasted beef (6,730 kU/100g)
12. Grilled pork (6,700 KU/100g)
13. Grilled shrimp (6,540 kU/100g)
14. Roasted duck (6,360 kU/100g)
15. Fried chicken nuggets (6,220 kU/100g)
16. Fried calamari (6,130 kU/100g)
17. Fried chicken wings (5,960 kU/100g)
18. Grilled mackerel (5,710 kU/100g)
19. Grilled sardines (5,690 kU/100g)
20. Fried catfish (5,510 kU/100g)
21. Fried beef patty – 5,963 kU/100g
22. Grilled chicken breast – 5,729 kU/100g
23. Fried pork sausage – 5,690 kU/100g
24. Fried chicken breast – 4,831 kU/100g
25. Fried pork chop – 4,693 kU/100g
26. Roasted turkey breast – 4,214 kU/100g
27. Grilled salmon – 3,765 kU/100g
28. Fried potatoes – 2,240 kU/100g
29. Fried onion rings – 1,990 kU/100g
30. French fries – 1,752 kU/100g
It’s important to note that the formation of AGEs during cooking can vary depending on
the cooking method, temperature, and duration. The values listed above are based on
typical cooking methods and may not reflect the exact AGE content of a specific food
item. These values are based on research conducted by the Mount Sinai School of
Here are 20 foods that are relatively low in AGES, along with their approximate AGES
content in kU/100g:
1. Broccoli (0.1 kU/100g)
2. Tomatoes (0.2 kU/100g)
3. Spinach (0.2 kU/100g)
4. Asparagus (0.3 kU/100g)
5. Mushrooms (0.4 kU/100g)
6. Cauliflower (0.4 kU/100g)
7. Green beans (0.4 kU/100g)
8. Bell peppers (0.5 kU/100g)
9. Brussels sprouts (0.6 kU/100g)
10. Cabbage (0.6 kU/100g)
11. Carrots (0.6 kU/100g)
12. Onions (0.6 kU/100g)
13. Apples (0.7 kU/100g)
14. Berries (0.8 kU/100g)
15. Grapes (0.8 kU/100g)
16. Watermelon (0.8 kU/100g)
17. Oranges (0.9 kU/100g)
18. Sweet potatoes (1.1 kU/100g)
19. Brown rice (1.4 kU/100g)
20. Quinoa (1.4 kU/100g)
AGES are a type of molecule that are formed when sugars and proteins react in the body. They
can be formed through normal metabolic processes, but are accelerated by high blood sugar
levels and oxidative stress. AGEs have been linked to a number of chronic diseases, including
diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease. Reducing the
consumption of foods that are high in AGES and managing blood sugar levels and oxidative
stress can help to reduce the formation of AGEs in the body and lower the risk of chronic